Category Archives: Health

Personal Injury Attorneys

A personal injury attorney,also known as a plaintiff or trial lawyer is a type of civil litigator who provides legal representation to individuals who claim to have been injured or assaulted either physically,emotionally or psychologically as a result of negligence,wrongdoing by another individual or company or government agency or any other entity.Although Personal injury attorneys are trained and licensed to practice virtually any field of law,they are more knowledgeable and have more experience as well as specialization in an area of law known as Tort Law which deals extensively with but not limited to work injuries,automobile and other accidents,defective products,medical mistakes,slip and fall accidents,wrongful death,medical malpractice as well as defamation and actions for bad faith breach of contract.

What are their responsibilities?

Personal injury attorneys have quite a number of duties on aiding their clients.These duties include both ethical and professional codes of conduct and rules provided for by the association that license these lawyers.

They have the overall responsibility is to obtain justice and compensation for their clients which can be achieved by counseling,advocacy,legal advice or oral arguments.This can be established by talking to and interviewing the aforementioned in a bid to assess their cases.During this process,they further identify the pertinent issues within their client’s case and thereafter conduct extensive research in order to build a solid case.Actions taken during the investigation of a personal injury case include photographing the scene,locating and interviewing witnesses who were available at the time of the accident,reviewing insurance policies,communicating with the said insurance companies,gathering medical records and attempting to negotiate a settlement before the case reaches the court system or filing a lawsuit and litigating the case until it reaches a conclusion within the court system.Personal injury lawyers owe their clients a duty of loyalty and confidentiality thus are mandated to ensure that they are safe from being victimized by companies that offer insurance as well as the established legal system and must work to protect their clients’ best interests.

Their career make up

Personal injury attorneys are allowed to start private practices by themselves or join a larger firm as an associate or as a partner.The lawyers who opt for private practice offer more individualized advantages to the clients.These practitioners often take up smaller cases and charge lower fees.

What are the required certifications?

In order to successfully practice personal injury law,passing a written bar exam is mandatory in addition to a written ethics examination.It should be noted that these exams vary from state to state although majority states require that applicants have a college degree and a law degree from an accredited institution.

Professional regulations and associations

Personal injury attorneys are regulated by codes of conduct established by state bar associations which have the power to take disciplinary actions against lawyers that violate professional and ethical regulations.Such organizations include American Bar Association,Association of Personal Injury Attorneys and Association of Trial Lawyers of America to mention a few.


Typical lawyer fees are based on a number of factors which may include time and energy spent on the case,the outcome of the aforementioned,challenges faced while tackling the case,experience and prominence of the lawyer and costs associated with the case.Several standard payment options include contingency fees which is an agreed amount of recovery awarded to the plaintiff in a case,hourly rates,flat fees and retainers.In most cases,monetary  recovery is obtained through settlement,mediation,arbitration or trial.

Written by Kellie Bertels, an attorney at Bandre, Hunt and Snider in Jefferson City, MO. Bandre, Hunt and Snider are the best personal injury attorneys Jefferson City MO have to offer.










What Will I Learn in Makeup Artist School?

So you’re considering a career as a makeup artist. That’s wonderful! Makeup is a fast-paced and exciting field, and if you’ve got a passion for makeup, you’ll be a huge star.

So if you’re considering a makeup education, you’re probably wondering: Should I even go to school? Is it worth it? And if I do go, what will I learn in makeup artist school?

It is our goal to make all of your career dreams come true, so we pulled together the information below to get you started. First, we’ll talk about how makeup artist schools are a little different than cosmetology and esthetician schools, then we’ll talk about the curriculum at esthetics phoenix az, and then we help you figure out which is the right choice for you.

Every School Offers Very Different Courses

In the United States, makeup artistry is not a licensed profession. What do we mean by that? Well, for many professions, the state you work in requires you to go to a state-recognized training program with a curriculum that the state has agreed upon, then take a skills exam administered by the state, and then get a license to work in that state. That’s the way it is for beauticians, estheticians, nail techs, and barbers. If you don’t have a license to work in that state, you can’t get a job.

Makeup artistry, however, is NOT a licensed profession. At the time we published this post, you do NOT need a makeup artist license to become a makeup artist. And that’s good thing, because it means you can start building your career right away. But it also means that states don’t require schools to set a particular curriculum in their courses, so every makeup school teaches a different curriculum.

So makeup artist schools offer a wide array of classes. Some offer full-time classes, where you’ll learn absolutely everything, from avant-garde to fashion makeup for photo shoots to special effects makeup for movies and theatre. Those tend to be very pricey. Then there are other schools that allow you to focus on a particular subject and take only the courses that interest you, such as a bridal makeup or airbrush makeup.

Do I Need to Actually Go to a Makeup Artist School to Become a Professional Makeup Artist?

Nope! You don’t. You don’t need to go to makeup artist school in order to become a makeup artist. Some of the best and most sought-after makeup artists in the world never went to school.

So why would anyone go to school? Well, it’s a great place to practice! And, if you’re like a lot of people, it’s easier to be taught new techniques and methods, rather than having to do discover them yourself. Some people are great at learning on their own; others need a little guidance. And because you’ll need all the experience you can get, school can be a big advantage.

Also, the key to success as a makeup artist is to make professional connections, and school is a great place to do that.

Are the Makeup Schools Near Me?

Ten to fifteen years ago, there were very few makeup artist schools, but over the last decade or so, we’ve seen schools pop up in most of the major metropolitan centers. Most of the makeup artist schools are located in New York City and Los Angeles, but there are some great schools Chicago, Miami, Houston, Atlanta, and many others. We’ve written a long post on how to choose the best school for you, which you should definitely check out.

If you have access to those cities or the main cities in your state, you may be able to enroll. If not…

Is There a Good Alternative to Makeup Artist School?

For many people, a cosmetology school is an excellent alternative to makeup artist school (in fact, we’d go as far to say that it’s a great option for MOST people). There are a couple of reasons:

  • Availability. There simply aren’t makeup artist schools all over the place, but there ARE cosmetology schools all over the place. If you can’t move and go to a school in a far off place, beauty school can provide training closer to home.
  • The job market. The need for cosmetologists and beauticians far exceeds the need for makeup artists. Once you get a cosmetology license, you can always be certain that you can quickly get a job in the beauty industry, whereas becoming a makeup artist can take a while.
  • You’ll become versatile. If you go to beauty school and decide to become a makeup artist, it’s often helpful to have experience doing hair and nails, which are taught in most cosmetology programs. Being well-versed is never a bad thing!
  • Cost. Some MUA schools can get quite pricey, and a cosmetology program can cost a LOT less than a makeup artist program.
  • It’s easier! If we’re being honest, a lot of people find out that being a beautician is a lot easier than being a makeup artist! There are a ton of hassles when it comes to running a freelance business, and for people who simply love to make others look their best—and who don’t want the hassle or headache of running their own company—cosmetology is the better choice.

You will not focus on makeup in a cosmetology program (although it will likely be part of the curriculum). Instead, you’ll learn all aspects of beauty as it pertains to skin, hair, and nails.

If you’d like to learn about schools in your area, we have a “Find a School” helper at the top of the page.

Do I Need a Makeup Kit for School?

You’ll need a makeup kit, but most fashion makeup schools have a complete kit you can buy, or a list of items you’ll need to round out the kit you’ve already begun building. Many places will require you to buy a kit from the school, and the cost is part of the tuition.

How to minimize HIV risk

Even from a research standpoint, definitions across various studies lack consistency, according to Elizabeth Bowen, an assistant professor in the University at Buffalo School of Social Work, whose new study published in the Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Work suggests how understanding housing histories and the multiple dimensions of homelessness can help better identify who might be at greater risk of transmitting or contracting HIV.

“The homeless population can’t be painted with a broad brush because there will be people within that group who have more stability than others,” she said.

“This study came of wanting to break down what it means to be homeless and linking that with HIV risk behaviors.”

Bowen’s research looked specifically at residents of single-room occupancy (SRO) housing in Chicago, a group that illustrates the difficulty of assigning a unified definition of homelessness.

Bowen says there is a subset of the SRO group that considers themselves homeless, even though they have a place to live, because of uncertainly derived from factors that include concerns about rent increases and an inability to continue to afford even minimal housing such as an SRO.

“That’s one end of the spectrum,” says Bowen. “It’s a transient population that’s bouncing into and out of SRO buildings and other locations, such as staying in overnight shelters or on the street. But on the other end is the long-term resident, who may have been stably housed for 20 years.”

When thinking about how to help minimize HIV risk, Bowen says it’s important to target the right people.

“The long-term residents might need help in other areas, but the research suggests they’re not engaging in the same risky behaviors, such as drug use or having multiple sexual partners, as the residents who had been homeless more recently or who still considered themselves to be homeless.”

This information is critical to social workers trying to identify who might be most in need of help.

“We talk a lot in social work about harm reduction,” says Bowen, who was a social worker in Chicago before her career in research and higher education. “It is apparent to me that there is a sub-population of SRO residents who might need those harm-reduction services — and it wouldn’t have to be a major intervention. It might be a matter of brief screening and counseling.”

But Bowen also points out that this type of research underscores the need for affordable housing in U.S. cities.

SROs are basic, low-rent units, often constituting buildings that developers can easily, and with increasing frequency, convert into more profitable structures.

“Even while we were collecting data for this study, we saw some of these buildings closing,” she says. “This limited option is getting increasingly scarce.”

Bowen says the link between health and housing goes beyond HIV to include many chronic long-term health issues, both physical and mental.

SROs might be affordable, but the rent for this type of housing still represents a large percentage of a resident’s income, which is often exclusively Supplemental Security Income.

“There’s very little money left over for food, health care and other essentials,” says Bowen. “There needs to be not only more high-quality affordable housing options, but more subsidized housing so people are not spending more than half of their fixed monthly income on a place to live.”

Prompt coordinated treatment are needed for TB and HIV Patient

People with HIV or diabetes, who are taking immune-suppressing medications, or who smoke or abuse drugs, are at higher risk for developing TB disease once infected.

Patients often are diagnosed with HIV and TB at the same time. In 2003, when the previous TB guidelines were developed, patients with HIV usually did not start their anti-retroviral therapy (ART) until after TB treatment was completed, unless the immunosuppression from HIV-infection progressed. Recommendations for timing of initiation of ART have since changed.

“Data from numerous trials have made it very clear that patients with HIV should begin treatment with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) during TB treatment, and not wait until after TB therapy is completed,” said Payam Nahid, M.D., M.P.H., lead author of the guidelines and professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine. “Research shows that all patients with TB and HIV should receive treatment for both conditions, with HIV treatment beginning within 8 to 12 weeks of the start of TB therapy. Some patients may need HIV treatment even sooner.”

Dr. Nahid notes that ART may need to be delayed especially in HIV-infected patients with TB meningitis; in these patients, very early initiation of ART (within two weeks of the start of TB treatment) has been associated with increased risk of death. Nonetheless, ART should be initiated as early as possible during TB treatment. If patients do not receive ART during treatment of TB, the new guidelines recommend that TB treatment should be extended to eight months or longer, to reduce risk of relapse.

TB is a bacterial infection that is spread through the air and most often attacks the lungs. Drug-susceptible TB bacteria can be killed by the medications normally used to treat TB disease. After two decades of steady declines, the number of new U.S. TB cases rose slightly in 2015 to 9,563, according to provisional data released by CDC. It is one of the world’s deadliest diseases: in 2014, it is estimated that 9.6 million people worldwide fell newly ill with TB, and 1.5 million died.

The new guidelines recommend comprehensive care of all patients with TB disease (known as case management), including the use of directly observed therapy (DOT), which improves treatment success. In DOT, a health care provider watches the patient swallow each dose of medication during the six-month course of therapy. To be consistent with the principles of patient-centered care, the guidelines recommend that decisions regarding the use of DOT be made in partnership with the patient. DOT should be provided by trained health care workers in the doctor’s office, clinic, or the patient’s home, place of employment, school or other site convenient for the patient. For all TB patients, case management is essential to ensure treatment is effective, the guidelines note.

“Case management, including DOT and patient education and counseling, is vital to reducing the risk of non-adherence to treatment, and consequently the risks of TB relapse, drug-resistance and other illnesses,” said Philip LoBue, MD, director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE) at CDC in Atlanta. “We now have clear evidence to show that the benefits of case management are real.”

Although the guidelines focus on drug-susceptible TB, following the recommendations can help stem the growing problem of acquired drug resistance, researchers note. This includes recommendations related to avoiding highly intermittent therapies, and using case management strategies such as DOT.

Because rapid killing of the TB bacteria reduces the risk of death and the spread of the disease, the guidelines note that TB treatment (currently a combination of four medications) should begin as soon as the patient is suspected of having active TB disease, even before test results confirm the diagnosis. They also recommend therapy be given daily, rather than intermittently.

At a Glance

  • Patients diagnosed with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) should receive prompt, coordinated treatment for both conditions, recommend new ATS/CDC/IDSA guidelines on the treatment of drug-susceptible TB disease.
  • Using case management strategies, including directly observed therapy (DOT), in caring for patients with TB disease reduces the risk of treatment failure and development of drug resistance.
  • Rather than waiting for test results, treatment should begin as soon as TB disease is suspected, and daily therapy is best to reduce risk of relapse and drug resistance.
  • In 2014, more than 9 million people worldwide developed active TB, including more than 9,000 in the United States.

How to take care of canser

The findings shed light on the state of cancer caregiving in the United States. This study will be presented at the upcoming 2016 Palliative Care in Oncology Symposium in San Francisco.

“Our research demonstrates the ripple effect that cancer has on families and patient support systems,” said study researcher Erin Kent, PhD, MS, program director in the Outcomes Research Branch of the Healthcare Delivery Research Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). “Caregiving can be extremely stressful and demanding — physically, emotionally, and financially. The data show we need to do a better job of supporting these individuals as their wellbeing is essential to the patient’s quality of life and outcomes.”

Dr. Kent emphasized the cyclical nature of cancer care, often requiring short, yet highly intense periods of time where patients undergo active treatment, such as chemotherapy, as a possible reason for the increased intensity in caregiving. She noted such intensity is also associated with increased caregiver stress and depression.

The data, extracted from the 2015 Caregiving in the U.S. study, showed cancer caregivers were 63% more likely to experience a higher burden than non-cancer caregivers. Cancer caregivers also reported spending nearly 50% more hours per week providing care than non-cancer caregivers.

Researchers also found that cancer caregivers were more likely to communicate with health care professionals, and to advocate on behalf of the patient (62% of cancer caregivers vs. 49% of non-cancer caregivers). Despite high levels of engagement with providers, cancer caregivers were twice as likely to report needing more help and information with making end-of-life decisions.

Dr. Kent stated that data on caregiving is difficult to collect and stressed the importance of these population-level findings. In addition, she underscored the need for additional research on cancer caregivers.

“Based on our findings, it’s clear we need additional research on caregiving to better understand at what point providers and clinicians should intervene to assess the wellbeing of caregivers. Technology, combined with use of a clinical distress rating system, could be promising in the future as a means to ensure caregivers are being supported in a meaningful way,” Dr. Kent said.

Find the best of medicine to avoid every diseases

Now, that chemical biologist and his colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine report that tests of triptolide in human cells and mice are vastly improved by the chemical-attachment-of-glucose to the triptolide molecule. The chemical add–on makes the molecule more soluble and essentially turns it into a “cruise missile” that preferentially seeks out cancer cells, the research says. The change might also decrease side effects in patients and make the drug easier to administer.

A summary of the research is published in the journalAngewandte Chemie and was published online on Aug. 30.

“We have a long way to go before we can test this derivative of triptolide in humans, and we think that additional adjustments could improve it even more,” says Jun O. Liu, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and molecular sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a member of the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, “but it already has the key characteristics we’ve been looking for: It is quite water soluble, and it prefers cancer cells over healthy cells.”

Liu, a native of a small town north of Shanghai in China, explains that the thunder god vine has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 400 years, mostly to calm an overactive immune system, which can cause diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

His laboratory specializes in figuring out how natural compounds with known healing properties exert their effects on human cells. Five years ago, he and his colleagues discovered that triptolide halts cell growth by interfering with the protein XPB, part of the large protein machine transcription factor IIH, which, in turn, is needed by enzyme complex RNA polymerase II to make mRNA.

Because triptolide halts cell growth, it works well to fight the multiplication of cancer cells, Liu says, both in lab-grown cells and in laboratory animals with cancer. Unfortunately, it and many of its derivatives — has failed to work well in patients because it doesn’t dissolve well in water or blood, and has too many side effects due to its indiscriminate killing of healthy cells as well as tumor cells.

Liu’s latest research sought to “train” triptolide to target cancer cells by exploiting the knowledge that most cancer cells make extra copies of proteins, called glucose transporters. Those transporters form tunnels through a cell’s membrane to import enough glucose to fuel rapid growth. By attaching glucose to triptolide, the researchers hoped to trick the cancer cells into importing the cell-killing poison, as had been done successfully with other anticancer drugs.

“We were looking for something that could be administered intravenously, remain stable in the blood and then become active as soon as it was imported into cancer cells,” says Liu.

To begin, the chemists designed and synthesized five derivatives of triptolide, dubbed glutriptolides. Each derivative had glucose attached to the same spot on the triptolide molecule but had different “linkers” connecting them.

An initial experiment showed that none of the glutriptolides were good at blocking the activity of purified transcription factor IIH. Liu explains that what might seem like bad news was actually a positive result, since it suggested that the drugs would only be active once they entered cells and had their glucose attachments removed.

When the five glutriptolides were tested on human embryonic kidney cells, glutriptolide 2 slowed down cell growth better than the rest and is the only derivative they continued to study.

In later test tube and cell experiments, the researchers confirmed that glutriptolide 2 works just like triptolide — by interfering with XPB — though it does so only in higher concentrations. They also showed that a cancer cell line (DLD1-Mut) known to produce lots of glucose transporter 1 was more sensitive to glutriptolide 2’s effects than a similar cell line (DLD1-WT) without extra copies of the transporter.

When the researchers assessed triptolide’s effects on a variety of healthy cells and cancer cells in parallel with glutriptolide 2, they found that triptolide tended to equally slow the growth of healthy cells and cancer cells, while glutriptolide 2 was eight times more effective against cancer cells, on average. Liu says this result suggests that the new compound — if tested in humans — may be more selective against cancer cells and could therefore have fewer side effects.

Finally, due to the differences in the compounds’ general toxicity, tests showed that mice could tolerate a dose of 0.2 milligram/kilogram of triptolide and 1 milligram/kilogram of glutriptolide 2. At those doses, glutriptolide 2 eradicated tumors more quickly in mice with prostate cancer and prevented tumor cells from reappearing for a full three weeks after treatment had stopped.

“We were totally surprised to see that sustained antitumor activity,” says Liu. “It’s something we want to study further.” The group plans to test additional modifications to the biochemical links that connect glucose to triptolide to see if it can further decrease the compound’s toxicity to healthy cells and increase its effectiveness against cancerous ones.

The work was accomplished through a close international collaboration among three research groups led by Liu, Martin Pomper of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Biao Yu of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Other authors of the report include Qing-Li He, Il Minn, Sarah Head and Emmanuel Datan of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Qiaoling Wang and Peng Xu of the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Best medicine tips for migraines

A wide variety of pharmacological interventions such as opiates, benzodiazepines, and prophylactic medications have been described that offer partial relief to migraine sufferers. Reviews have also described a variety of empirically supported non-pharmacological approaches to preventing or stopping headaches.

Recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of meditation-based interventions as a treatment for headache pain. Though spiritual meditation has been found to reduce the frequency of migraines and physiological reactivity to stress, little is known about how introducing a spirituality component into a meditation intervention impacts use of analgesic medicine. The results from the study support previous research suggesting that spiritual meditation may be more effective for pain tolerance and migraine coping than non-spiritual meditation alternatives.

In this study, 92 meditation-naïve participants with frequent migraines (>2 per month) were randomly assigned to one of four groups that used a meditation phrase or technique: (1) Spiritual Meditation (exp. “God is love”), (2) Internally Focused Secular Meditation (exp. “I am content”), (3) Externally Focused Secular Meditation (exp. “Sand is soft,”), or (4) Progressive Muscle Relaxation (technique). Then, the participants practiced their assigned meditation technique for 20 minutes per day over 30 days while completing daily headache diaries. Headache frequency, headache severity, and pain medication use were recorded and assessed. Migraine frequency decreased significantly in the Spiritual Meditation group compared to other groups. Headache severity ratings did not differ across groups. All four groups showed decreased analgesic medication use over time — however, medication usage for migraine headaches had a sharper decline in the Spiritual Meditation group compared to other groups.

The advantage of fruit to avoid canser

They discovered this by examining a common household pest  the fruit fly.

“Flies and humans have a lot in common in terms of genes and pathways for developing cancer,” said Wu Min Deng, professor of biological science at Florida State and the senior author on the paper.

Deng and his now former postdoctoral researcher Yoichiro Tamori found that in the fruit fly, tumors always originated from specific regions of the epithelial tissue.

Their findings are laid out in a study published in PLOS Biology.

Deng and Tamori were interested in examining basic pathways and tissue structures where tumors might form. Many scientists study the development in fruit flies as a model to determine the basic fundamentals of several diseases, including cancer.

“At its heart, this is basic research investigating how cancer gets started,” Deng said. “What are the tissue microenvironments that facilitate tumor formation?”

In examining fruit flies, researchers looked at the developing epithelial tissues in fruit fly larvae, called imaginal discs. The discs eventually form an outer layer structure of an adult fly. These discs are formed by sheets of cells called epithelia which have distinct upper and lower sides.

In mammals, similarly, epithelia cover all surfaces and line all cavities of the body. More than 80 percent of human cancers are originated from epithelial tissues.

Deng and his team used genetic engineering to turn off tumor suppressor genes in the larvae that are also found in humans and other animals. After they inactivated the tumor suppressor gene, the researchers discovered that tumors always originate from a specific area of the disc.

These tumor hotspots all involved an oncogenic signaling pathway that has been shown to be involved in many types of human cancers. Signaling pathways are essentially the communication networks within a cell telling it to perform a specific function.

Researchers found that on the basa or underside of the epithelial sheets, the tumor hotspot had a unique and rigid structure. Because of this robust structure at the basal side, pro tumor cells pop out of the apical side or top of the sheet — of the epithelia and start tumor formation.

But in other areas of the epithelial tissue what researchers called a tumor cold spot — the basal side of the tissue was more loosely constructed and pro-tumor cells were extruded from the basal side and die.

Deng said he and Tamori hope to continue their work looking at cancer and delve deeper into the signaling pathways and tissues in mammal systems

Good nutrition for your health

That’s the main finding of a new study from two University of Pennsylvania researchers: Jianghong Liu, an associate professor in Penn’s School of Nursing and Perelman School of Medicine, and Adrian Raine, the Richard Perry University Professor of Criminology, Psychiatry and Psychology. They published their results in the journal Maternal & Child Nutrition.

It’s a unique take on a field that often focuses on how poor diet negatively influences early childhood development.

“What people are not doing is looking at positive effects of good nutrition, in particular on social behavior,” said Raine, a Penn Integrates Knowledge professor with appointments in the School of Arts & Sciences and Medicine. “We link nutrition to physical health but also social health and positive social behavior.”

Liu, whose interdisciplinary research focuses on early health factors and children’s neurobehavioral outcomes, said it’s a gap in the research she hopes this work might bridge. “No one has looked at positive social behavior,” she said. “Childhood social behavior, even adult social behavior, has a lot of implications for physical and mental health and well being.”

For this study, the scientists analyzed a sample of 1,795 3-year-old children from Mauritius, an island off the eastern coast of Africa with a population of about 1.3 million people. They focused on four aspects of physical health related to nutrition and four indicators of social development.

Physical health factors included anemia expressed by low hemoglobin levels, reflecting iron deficiency; angular stomatitis revealed by cracked lips and a lack of vitamin B2 and niacin; and insufficient protein intake indicated by thin or sparse hair and hair discoloration. On Mauritius, where the majority of children have black hair, that fourth factor shows up as an orange or red tint to the hair.

The researchers considered a child with just one of the quartet as “suffering from nutritional deficits.” However, children with more malnutrition indicators showed more impaired social behavior.

Social interactions studied included friendliness, extent of verbalization, active social play and exploratory behavior. A research assistant observed every child’s success and rated these factors on a specified scale. The observer knew that the research concentrated on child development and behavior but was unaware of the nutrition-related hypothesis.

Examining the relationship between these components after the fact, Liu and Raine then teased out a neurocognitive link between nutrition and comprehensive social behavior. It’s a connection undiscovered to this point.

“The bigger message is give children good nutrition early on,” Liu said. “Not only will it enhance cognitive function but, importantly, promote good social behavior,” which is essential to brain development and intelligence.

“In the same study,” Raine said, “we’ve shown that children with positive social behavior, eight years later, they have higher IQs.”

Despite the diversity of Mauritius, which has Indian, Creole and, to a smaller extent, Chinese, French and English populations, the researchers acknowledge a desire to replicate their findings in large cities in the United States. Another limitation is the study’s cross-sectional nature, meaning measurements occurred all at once rather than over a long period of time.

Ideally, Raine said, “you want a randomized control trial. You want to manipulate nutrition to see whether you can get improvements in social behavior and cognitive function.”

It’s possible to reverse the effects of poor nutrition, too, according to the researchers.

The advantages of diets

unduhan-18The findings are published online and will appear in the July issue of the Journal of Nutrition.

“Little research has been done on how diet impacts physical function later in life. We study the connection between diet and many other aspects of health, but we don’t know much about diet and mobility, ” says Francine Grodstein, ScD, senior author of the study and a researcher in the Channing Division of Network Medicine at BWH. “We wanted to look at diet patterns and try to learn how our overall diet impacts our physicial function as we get older. “

Researchers examined the association between the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, a measure of diet quality, with reports of impairment in physical function among 54,762 women involved in the Nurses’ Health Study. Physical function was measured by a commonly used standard instrument every four years from 1992 to 2008 and diet was measured by food frequency questionnaires, which were administered approximately every four years beginning in 1980.

The data indicate that women who maintained a healthier diet were less likely to develop physical impairments compared to women whose diets were not as healthy. They also found a higher intake of vegetables and fruits, a lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, trans-fats, and sodium, and a moderate alcohol intake, were each significantly associated with reduced rates of physical impairment. Among individual foods, the strongest relations were found for increased intakes of oranges, orange juice, apples and pears, romaine or leaf lettuce, and walnuts. However, researchers noted specific foods generally had weaker associations than the overall score, which indicates that overall diet quality is more important than individual foods.

“We think a lot about chronic diseases, cancer, heart disease, and tend not to think of physical function. Physical function is crucial as you age; it includes being able to get yourself dressed, walk around the block, and could impact your ability to live independently,” says Kaitlin Hagan, ScD, MPH, first author and a postdoctoral fellow at BWH.

Future research is needed to better understand dietary and lifestyle factors that influence physical function.